Pb-Free Including High Temperature Pb-Free
Lead (Pb)-containing solders have been used for many years for wafer and substrate-bumping applications. Most recently, these solders have been replaced by Sn-based Pb-free solders; however, the majority of cutting-edge applications, such as copper pillar/microbump, have moved to a low-silver plated solder. Additionally, some very fine pitch temperature-sensitive applications now use pure indium or indium-silver-plated bumps.
The selection of lead-based alloys for power semiconductor applications is large, and their usage is likely to continue into the future. However, some long-standing lead-free alloys and some novel high-melting Pb-free solder paste technologies are in use in specific applications:
|Lower Tj IGBT usage||96.5||3.5||221°C||Eutectic|
|Also known as "J-alloy"||65||25||10||233°C||Eutectic|
|Commonly used in step-soldering processes||95||5||237°C||240°C|
|Highest Sb content possible in standard Sn/Sb wire||91.5||8.5||241°C||248°C|
|Commonly used in step-soldering processes||90||10||243°C||257°C|
|Highest melting standard Sn/Sb alloy||86||14|
|Very poor solder-ability||11||89||262°C||360°C|
|Very high tensile strength and thermal / electrical conductivities||20||80||280°C||Eutectic|
|Usable for very high Tj die-attach such as SiC||88||12||356°C||Eutectic|
Pb-Free Including High Temperature Pb-Free Technical Documents
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Pb-Free Including High Temperature Pb-Free Blog Posts
In today’s electronics manufacturing industry, many companies are using lead-free solder alloys. However, there are a few sectors in the industry that prefer the reliability and performance of tin-lead alloys. I’ve recently received a number of questions from customers asking how to adjust their solder pot to get the desired...
If you haven’t heard about Bi-containing (bismuth) solder alloys recently, that may change in the near future. Low-melting Bi-containing solders are now in increasing use and gaining popularity due to their lower melting temperatures—58Bi/42Sn is eutectic at 138°C and 57Bi/42Sn/1Ag melts 137-139°C (both are Pb-free alternatives). A low-temperature solder is advantageous...
In a six-part SMT assembly series, we discussed the advantages of using fine powder solder pastes to improve process yields for stencil printing, especially in areas where the area ratio is below 0.66. Because ~60% of solder defects typically occur at the...
Andy C. Mackie, PhD, MSc
Senior Product Manager,
Semiconductor Assembly Materials
From One Engineer to Another®
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