Indium metal has played a key role in technology advances since it was first investigated by Dr. William S. Murray in 1924 in Utica, NY, and with the creation of the Indium Corporation in 1934, the two have been tied together, leading, and supporting the advancement of technologies that we all rely on today.
Indium is extracted primarily from indium-bearing zinc or tin ores and purified to various grades utilizing state-of-the-art statistical process controlled refining technologies.
Indium Corporation produces and refines indium in the USA, Korea, and China.
No other metal is as versatile as indium metal. In its various forms it is used for:
- Sealing in cryogenic applications - stays malleable and ductile below -150°C
- Soldering or fusing applications - alloys melt at temperatures ranging from 6.5°C to 310°C
- High-end device cooling - reduces operating temperatures by up to 10°C
In addition to its metallic properties, indium also exhibits valuable semiconducting properties. For instance, indium is used:
- As an absorber layer material in solar panels - to convert photons from the sun into usable electricity.
- In a variety of compound semiconductor material, such as InAs, InGaAs, and InGaN, - to enable electronics and electro-optic applications like integrated circuits, lasers, and LEDs.
Indium is also used in combination with various semiconducting oxides, where it plays its most valuable role as a transparent conductor. ITO (indium-tin oxide) is used on nearly every flat panel display and touchscreen in use today. In fact, IGZO (combining indium, gallium, and zinc oxides) is the future material of choice for forming the pixel switching transistors in next-generation displays.
Indium sputtering targets are commonly used with CuGa sputtering targets to co-deposit copper, indium, and gallium, in combination with sulfur/selenium, to form the active layer on CIS/CIGS thin film cells. Other forms of indium (such as pellets or shot) can be used to form similar active layers when utilizing evaporative methods of deposition.
Indium Metal Technical Documents
Product Data Sheets
Safety Data Sheets
Indium Alloy Blog Posts
Phil Zarrow: When we think of solder alloys, out there in the world, we immediately think, of course, Sn63, Sn62, and obviously the SAC alloys. What can you tell us about low-temp alloys?
Carol Gowans: Well, at Indium Corporation, we have over 200 solder alloys in our solder alloy directory. And we’ve categorized that into six solder families. The first one is gallium, which is a metal that’s liquid at room temperature, so we don’t use that a lot in the solder. And we have, in increasing temperature, the bismuth family; the indium family; of course the tin family, like you mentioned; the lead family; and the gold family. And what I’d like to focus on today are the bismuth and the indium.
Estimating the Per Cent Gold In An Alloy: "Wet Gold Technique" Only Works with One Alloying Element… and You Must Know What That Element Is
Folks, The Wet Gold Technique is a simple way to estimate the percentage of gold in a gold alloy. This technique indirectly measures the density of the alloy. From the density of the alloy one can determine the percentage of gold using a formula similar to that in the Indium...
In today’s electronics manufacturing industry, many companies are using lead-free solder alloys. However, there are a few sectors in the industry that prefer the reliability and performance of tin-lead alloys. I’ve recently received a number of questions from customers asking how to adjust their solder pot to get the desired...
Indium Corporation does not recommend, manufacture, market, or endorse any of our products for human consumption.
Director, Metals & Compounds
From One Engineer to Another®
All of Indium Corporation’s products and solutions are designed to be commercially available
unless specifically stated otherwise.