Indium Blog

Cu-Ga Rotary Sputtering Target Testing

  • CIG
  • Indium Corporation
  • Solar
  • Sputtering Target
  • Thin Film

  • Cu-Ga Sputtering Target Thin Film Deposition
    Q1) What the heck are we looking at in this picture?

    A1) It’s a CuGa (copper gallium) target being sputtered at Angstrom Sciences, Inc. test lab. Since CuGa rotary sputtering targets are becoming more popular in the CIGS deposition industry, we wanted to see how they work with AS cathodes. The result: a winning combination!

    Angstrom Sciences Lab 

    Angstrom Sciences Lab

    Why haven’t Cu-Ga rotary targets been more popular for production of CIGS solar cells (a thin film technology)?

    A2) The big problem has historically been segregation of the copper and gallium in traditionally cast targets. This was a hot topic for those who stopped by the booth at the Society of Vacuum Coaters TechCon and checked out our full size CuGa display target. It is only natural to question if a display piece actually works well in a production sputtering process. In order to make this product work, we had to manufacture it using our proprietary hybrid consolidation technique.


    Cu-Ga Rotary Target Spent Without giving away all the juicy details, I can tell you that it was a learning experience and that there were some setup issues that led to improved applied power settings. Our customers have been pleased with the results of our CuGa targets, although the fine tuning is proprietary to them and we cannot share their learnings. Now we have a much better understanding of the maximum power we can use for this type of target. That's why it was so important to work with an equipment supplier.

    One thing that is obvious from looking at the spent target is the lack of an erosion groove from magnet dwell - a nice feature of the magnetron that was used. The spent target is on display in my boss’ office. It serves as a reminder of the time we spent with the Angstrom Science guys sputtering the target, gathering data, and learning from the team.

    Authored by previous Indium Application Manager Jim Hisert