Our materials enable the manufacture of strong, reliable products that endure the inevitable physical shocks and thermal stresses associated with electronics devices in applications from the Internet of Things (IoT) mobile devices to next-generation - low-energy servers – to automobile electronics.
The different flux and solder paste formulations mean that some products will have different material lifetimes than others. Understanding the lifetimes and following manufacturers recommendations can help to ensure you get the optimum performance from the material.
The ball-attach process for BGA and PGA packages uses a flux that is usually applied via pin-transfer from a dipping tray. Solder spheres (solder balls) are then placed into the deposits and the whole assembly is reflowed. BGA fluxes are usually water soluble, while PGA fluxes are often very reactive no-clean materials.
Indium Corporation most popular ball-attach fluxes include:
WS-446HF: a no-intentionally-added halogen-free water washable ball-attach flux with an activator system powerful enough to promote wetting on the most demanding substrate metallizations
WS-575-C-RT: a halogen-compliant, room temperature stable, one-step flux that eliminates the need for pre-fluxing
WS-3600: a robust, halogen-containing flux that works well under challenging conditions
NC-585: designed for PGA applications; eliminates issues caused by cleaning while still ensuring good solderability
Epoxy fluxes are often used in no-clean SMT component attach applications. The solder bumps on wafer level CSP, micro BGA or BGA packages are dipped in epoxy fluxes, or the flux is applied to the substrate via a jetting process. The assembly is then reflowed, and the epoxy flux acts to both clean up the solder joints before reflow, and to reinforce the final joint from the cured polymer.
The flip-chip process involves taking the singulated die from a wafer mounted on a wafer dicing tape, inverting ("flipping") them and placing them onto a substrate. The substrate may be a printed circuit board, a ceramic substrate, or (in the case of 2.5D and 3D assembly) an interposer.
Copper pillar/solder microbumps are emerging as a standard flip-chip solder bump replacement in many parts of the semiconductor assembly industry, from standard chip-attach to power devices using flip-chip on leadframe as assembly technologies. For logic and similar devices, substrate metallization (landing pad) technology has also shifted from solder-on-pad (SoP), manufactured from printed and reflowed and cleaned solder paste, to individual solder balls. The technology is now moving to simple organic solderability protectant (OSP) on copper.
Water-soluble fluxes, which may be applied by dipping or spraying, have long been used in flip-chip assembly, but their long history of utility is coming to a close as a number of factors makes the move to no-clean inevitable in the high-volume sub-130micron copper pillar era.
The use of copper pillar instead of solder bumps has meant that chip-substrate clearances and finer pitches do not necessarily move in lock-step with each other. However, copper pillar heights of 40-60 microns (and even shorter than this in the near future) combined with fine pitch, makes cleaning extremely complex. Aqueous (water-based) cleaning becomes more complex with fine pitch flip-chip attach as it becomes increasingly difficult to get the cleaning solution under the chip to dissolve the residues, and then to carry the residue-containing solution out from under the chip.
A recent emerging failure mode caused by cleaning involves solder joint damage during aqueous jet impingement. This failure mode is believed to be driven by a combination of: very small diameter microbumps; the move from hemispherical to very thin solder microbumps on copper pillar (reduced joint compliance); and low CTE, low-cost, and low layer count (thinned) substrates. In these circumstances, a move towards an ultra-low residue no-clean flux is inevitable, although new failure modes continue to appear, being driven by the smaller dimensions. For this reason, Indium Corporation has introduced a new ultra-low (ULR) flux called NC-26-A for both current and emerging applications.
Package-on-Package (PoP) assembly is most commonly carried out by printing solder paste onto the substrate and placing the logic chip into the paste. The memory package is then either dipped into a specially-designed PoP flux or solder paste and placed on top of the logic chip. The whole assembly is then reflowed. No-clean processes are used.
Cu-Pillar Flip-Chip Flux is a dipping flux designed for use in thermocompression bonding flip-chip copper pillar applications. Its rheology and chemical design enables its use with dipping depths down to 10 microns or less.
The amount of flux deposited on the substrate can be optimized by changing equipment parameters. Key variables include temperature, copper-pillar dimensions, shear speed, time of shearing before dipping, dwell time in flux, and depth of immersion. The flux rheology can be optimized for the desired application by shearing to achieve the desired viscosity.
Wafer bumping flux, which is also referred to as bump fusion flux, is a low-viscosity flux spun onto solder-bumped and copper-pillar or solder-capped wafers. The flux is designed to remove oxide and other contamination during reflow and cleaning steps. These fluxes can be either water-soluble or solvent clean.
Standard products include (chart):
Flux Application Method
High Pb, SnPb eutectic, and SnAg solder bumps
Solvent or aqueous-based chemistry
20-65 micron pitch copper-pillars with SnAg or Sn100 microbumps
Warm DI water
Used In High Volume Manufacturing?
All solder alloys, as long as powder can be made
Binary alloys only (Sn/Pb, Sn/Ag, Sn/Cu etc.) due to alloy control issues
All solder alloys, as long as sphere can be made
Probably limited to binary alloys
Down to around 125micron pitch only. Only 45% of paste volume is metal
Down to 2micron bumps feasible: possibly less
60micron bump diameter in mass production, but most commonly used for wafer level CSP manufacturing
OK: can vary significantly with age of solder paste and print process variables
Good with appropriate tight tolerance solderspheres